British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking has warned that development of artificial intelligence could mean the end of humanity. In an interview with the BBC, the scientist said such technology could rapidly evolve and overtake mankind, a scenario like that envisaged in the "Terminator" movies. "The primitive forms of artificial intelligence we already have, have proved very useful. But I think the development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race," the professor said in an interview aired Tuesday. "Once humans develop artificial intelligence it would take off on its own, and re-design itself at an ever increasing rate. "Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn't compete and would be superseded," said Hawking, who is regarded as one of the world's most brilliant living scientists. Hawking, who is wheelchair-bound as a result of motor neurone disease and speaks with the aid of a voice synthesiser, is however keen to take advantage of modern communications technology and said he was one of the first people to be connected in the early days of the Internet. He said the Internet had brought dangers as well as benefits, citing a warning from the new head of Britain's electronic spying agency GCHQ that it had become a command centre for criminals and terrorists.
"I'm told that children who need a computer voice want one like mine."
He told the BBC:"The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race." His warning came in response to a question about a revamp of the technology he uses to communicate, which involves a basic form of AI. But others are less gloomy about AI's prospects. The theoretical physicist, who has the motor neurone disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is using a new system developed by Intel to speak. Machine learning experts from the British company Swiftkey were also involved in its creation. Their technology, already employed as a smartphone keyboard app, learns how the professor thinks and suggests the words he might want to use next. Prof Hawking says the primitive forms of artificial intelligence developed so far have already proved very useful, but he fears the consequences of creating something that can match or surpass humans.
"Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn't compete, and would be superseded." But others are less pessimistic. "I believe we will remain in charge of the technology for a decently long time and the potential of it to solve many of the world problems will be realised," said Rollo Carpenter, creator of Cleverbot. Cleverbot's software learns from its past conversations, and has gained high scores in the Turing test, fooling a high proportion of people into believing they are talking to a human. Rise of the robots Mr Carpenter says we are a long way from having the computing power or developing the algorithms needed to achieve full artificial intelligence, but believes it will come in the next few decades. "We cannot quite know what will happen if a machine exceeds our own intelligence, so we can't know if we'll be infinitely helped by it, or ignored by it and sidelined, or conceivably destroyed by it," he says. But he is betting that AI is going to be a positive force. Prof Hawking is not alone in fearing for the future. In the short term, there are concerns that clever machines capable of undertaking tasks done by humans until now will swiftly destroy millions of jobs. In the longer term, the technology entrepreneur Elon Musk has warned that AI is "our biggest existential threat".
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